Martin V
(Oddone Colonna, 1368-1431; pope from 1417)
   A member of a powerful family of the Roman aristocracy, Colonna was elected pope by the Council of Constance (1414-1418) in order to end the Western Schism which since 1378 had divided Latin Chris-tendom between allegiance to two, and for a time three, popes. His election represented a triumph for the principle of Conciliarism, the theory that a general council, not the pope, was the ultimate authority in the church, and before his election Martin had to pledge to under-take reform of the church and to commit himself to summon periodic church councils which would have limited the autocratic powers claimed by the popes of the High Middle Ages. Once he was elected, however, Martin distanced himself from Conciliarism; he summoned the promised council at Pisa in 1423 but did not attend it in person, and when it proved to be poorly attended, he dissolved it. In 1431, under intense pressure from bishops and secular rulers, he called an-other council to meet in Basel, but he died before it convened.
   Martin was a shrewd political manipulator, able to persuade secu-lar princes to give him military support that enabled him to regain control of the disorderly city of Rome but unwilling to undertake any reforms that would significantly restrict his own claim to absolute power over the church. He reorganized the central bureaucracy of the papacy into an overwhelmingly Italian institution, not only in mem-bership but also in outlook. Both the pope and his servants sought to rebuild the centralized power of the papacy, leaving many of the spir-itual and organizational issues that had arisen in the later Middle Ages still unresolved.

Historical Dictionary of Renaissance. . 2004.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Martin V —     Pope Martin V     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Martin V     (Oddone Colonna)     Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431. He studied at the University of Perugia, became prothonotary Apostolic under… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Martín V — Papa de la Iglesia católica …   Wikipedia Español

  • Martin V — Pape de l’Église catholique Nom de naissance Oddone Colonna Naissance 1368 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Martín V — (nacido Odo u Oddone Colonna, 1368 – 20 de febrero de 1431) fue un papa de la Iglesia Católica; su pontificado, comenzado el 11 de noviembre de 1417, puso fin al Gran Cisma de Occidente, al rechazar las candidaturas alternativas de Juan XXIII,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Martin V — (Oddone Colonna) (1368 1431) pape de 1417 à 1431; son élection mit fin au grand schisme d Occident …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Martin V. — Papst Martin V. Nachzeichnung einer Statue von Jacopino da Tradate (1424) von Cesare Cantù (1858) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Martin V — (Oddone Colonna) 1368 1431, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1417 31. * * * orig. Oddo Colonna born 1368, Genazzano, Papal States died Feb. 20, 1431, Rome Pope (1417–31). His election at the Council of Constance marked the end of the Western Schism. He …   Universalium

  • Martin V — (Oddo Colonna; r. 1417 1431)    Martin V s election to the papal throne ended the Great Schism. At the Council of Constance, John XXII and Benedict XIII were deposed, Gregory XII was forced to abdicate, and Martin was elected as sole occupant of… …   Dictionary of Renaissance art

  • Martin V — (1368–1431)    Pope.    Martin was born Otto Colonna. He was elected Pope at the Council of Constance in 1417 in an attempt to heal the Great Schism. Gregory XII had abdicated in 1416; John XXIII had been deposed the same year and Benedict XIII… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Martin V — noun Italian pope from 1417 to 1431 whose election as pope ended the Great Schism (1368 1431) • Syn: ↑Oddone Colonna • Instance Hypernyms: ↑pope, ↑Catholic Pope, ↑Roman Catholic Pope, ↑pontiff, ↑Holy Father, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

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