Brunelleschi, Filippo
(1377-1446)
   Florentine artist, initially active as a sculptor but known principally as the creator of the early Italian Renaissance architectural style. According to a story told by two later Renaissance authors, after he was defeated by Lorenzo Ghiberti in 1401 in a competition for design of new bronze doors for the Florentine baptistery, he and his friend the sculptor Donatello travelled to Rome and studied the monuments of ancient Rome. This study enabled Brunelleschi to define the mathematical principles and proportions on which the ancient classical style was based. Whether this story is literally true or not, he seems to have been the first person to understand the mathematical principles of linear perspective.
   Back in Florence by 1417, Brunelleschi again competed against Ghiberti for the daunting task of designing the huge dome called for by the original architect of the cathedral but left unbuilt because no one could contrive a design for such a gigantic dome. This time Brunelleschi won the competition, largely because in addition to his familiarity with ancient Roman architecture, he had become a skilled mathematician and structural engineer. His dome won because of an ingenious design that not only called for a lighter, less stress-intensive structure but also would be much cheaper and faster to build. This success led the wealthy Medici family to choose him to design the sacristy (the family's burial chapel) of the church of San Lorenzo and then to rebuild the entire church. Though the new structure is reminiscent of the traditional Tuscan Romanesque style, it reflected classical architectural practice in its elegant and harmonious proportions. On a much smaller scale, strongly redolent of elements drawn from Roman architecture and yet representing a clearly modern design, was the Pazzi Chapel, commissioned by another wealthy Florentine family. Brunelleschi's subsequent works included the churches of Santo Spirito and Santa Maria degli Angeli. The latter was the earliest domed, central-plan church of the Renaissance. The engineering skills that Brunelleschi applied to designing the cathedral dome were also put to use in improving the design of the organ in the cathedral, designing a new type of river boat, designing an aqueduct, building stage machinery, and designing fortifications.

Historical Dictionary of Renaissance. . 2004.

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  • Brunelleschi, Filippo — born 1377, Florence [Italy] died April 15, 1446, Florence Florentine architect and engineer. Trained as a sculptor and goldsmith, he turned his attention to architecture after failing to win a competition for the bronze doors of the Baptistery of …   Universalium

  • BRUNELLESCHI, Filippo — (c. 1377 1446)    Filippo Brunelleschi, traditionally considered the founder of early Renaissance architecture in Italy, trained as a goldsmith in Florence and gained an understanding of architecture while studying classical buildings in Rome.… …   Historical Dictionary of Architecture

  • Brunelleschi, Filippo — (1377 1446)    Considered the pioneer of Early Renaissance architecture. The son of a Florentine notary and diplomat, Brunelleschi received a humanistic education. He was trained as a goldsmith, and turned to architecture after losing to Lorenzo… …   Dictionary of Renaissance art

  • Brunelleschi, Filippo — ► (1377 1446) Arquitecto, escultor y pintor italiano. Iniciador y creador de la arquitectura renacentista. Inició su actividad artística cultivando la escultura: relieve en bronce del sacrificio de Abraham. Destacó en arquitectura. Autor de la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Brunelleschi,Filippo — Bru·nel·le·schi (bro͞o nə lĕsʹkē), Filippo. 1377 1446. Italian architect celebrated for his work during the Florentine Renaissance. His greatest achievement is the octagonal ribbed dome of the Florence cathedral. * * * …   Universalium

  • Brunelleschi, Filippo —  (c. 1377–1446) Renaissance architect and sculptor …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

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  • Filippo Brunelleschi — Filippo Brunelleschi, zur Kuppel des Domes Santa Maria del Fiore hinaufblickend; Statue in Florenz Filippo Brunelleschi (* 1377 in Florenz; † 15. April 1446 ebenda) war einer der führenden italienischen Architekten und Bildhauer der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Filippo — Filippo, Eduardo * * * (as used in expressions) Brunelleschi, Filippo Filippo Bruno Giulio di Pietro di Filippo de Gianuzzi Lippi, Fra Filippo Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso (Emilio) …   Enciclopedia Universal

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