Paracelsus


Paracelsus
(1493-1541)
   Swiss-born physician, known for his re-jection of the practices, theories, and authorities of traditional academic medicine. Born at Einsiedeln, the son of a physician, he may never have regularly attended any university or received a medical doctor-ate, but both his reputation among contemporaries and his many sur-viving writings show that he had a broad general education, not only in medical subjects but also in mystical religion and Neoplatonic philosophy. He incorporated popular remedies and superstitions into his medical practice, and he was broadly sympathetic with Martin Luther, not in a theological sense but in reverence for the Bible and willingness to reject traditional authorities. He challenged the value of the ancient authors whose works were the theoretical foundation of academic medicine, such as Aristotle and Galen, as well as the medieval medical authority Avicenna, whose principal book he pub-licly burned during a public festival while serving as municipal physician at Basel in the 1520s.
   Paracelsus scorned the traditional explanation of illness as an imbal-ance of the four humors; he rejected the works of Hippocrates and Galen which were the foundation of humoral medicine. Instead, he ar-gued that disease was caused by external agents and must be treated with medicines specific to the ailment. His preferred remedies were based on his study of alchemy and included substances derived from toxic plants and minerals. His laboratory techniques and experiments with the modification of substances by distillation and chemical com-pounding made him a pioneer in the medical applications of chemistry.
   Paracelsus had an abrasive, uncultivated manner, and his practice of lecturing in German rather than Latin, together with his contemp-tuous rejection of conventional medicine, aroused the hostility of ac-ademic physicians. Yet he seems to have been strikingly successful at curing patients. While his unconventional ideas and practices led to his having an unstable and itinerant existence, Paracelsus' ideas and practices attracted a loyal body of disciples. They continued to de-velop and popularize Paracelsan medical ideas through the late 16th and 17th centuries, not only in German-speaking territories but also in England, France, and other European countries. Only a few of his many medical tracts were published in his lifetime, but after his death a great body of Paracelsan medical literature was published, some of it genuine but much of it spurious.

Historical Dictionary of Renaissance. . 2004.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Paracelsus — Par a*cel sus (p[a^]r [.a]*s[e^]l s[u^]s), prop. n. Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (originally Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, also called Theophrastus Paracelsus and Theophrastus von Hohenheim). Born at Maria Einsiedeln, in the Canton of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Paracélsus — Paracélsus, Philippus Aureolus P. Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, Arzt und Naturforscher, geb. 17. Dez. 1493 zu Maria Einsiedeln im Kanton Schwyz, gest. 24. Sept. 1541 in Salzburg, erhielt von seinem Vater, einem Arzt und Chemiker, den… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Paracelsus — (Paracelsus (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim)) Парацельс (Теофрастус Бомбастус фон Хоэнхайм) (1493 1541) врач, естествоиспытатель и философ, один из пионеров органической химии и медицины. Дал систематическое описание многих заболеваний,… …   Австрия. Лингвострановедческий словарь

  • Paracelsus — (izg. paracȅlsus) (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) (1494 1541) DEFINICIJA švicarsko njemački liječnik, prirodoslovac i angažirani renesansni filozof; iako sklon alkemiji, astrologiji i mistici, inzistiranjem na egzaktnom… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Paracelsus — Paracelsus, eigentlich Philipp Theophrastus von Hohenheim od. gräcisirt P. genannt Aureolus Bombastus, geb. 1493 zu Einsiedeln im Canton Schwyz. Von seinem Vater, dem natürlichen Sohn eines Adeligen, von Hohenheim, einem Arzt u. Chemiker, erhielt …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Paracelsus — Paracelsus, Philippus Aureolus P. Theophrastus von Hohenheim, genannt Bombastus, Arzt, Chemiker und Theosoph, geb. 17. Dez. 1493 zu Maria Einsiedeln (Schwyz), nach unstetem Leben gest. 23. Sept. 1541 zu Salzburg; durch glückliche Kuren berühmt,… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Paracelsus — * Paracelsus liegt noch drum mit Galenus im Streite …   Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon

  • Paracelsus — [par΄ə sel′səs] Philippus Aureolus [fi lip′əs ō̂ rē′ə ləs] (born Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) 1493 1541; Swiss physician & alchemist …   English World dictionary

  • Paracelsus — Darstellung des Paracelsus (Theophrast von Hohenheim) in einem Gemälde von Quentin Massys Philippus Theophrastus Aureolus Bombast von Hohenheim, getauft als Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, genannt Paracelsus, (* vermutlich 10. November …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Paracelsus — This article is about Philippus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus. For other uses, see Hohenheim (disambiguation). Philippus von Hohenheim portrait by Quentin Massys Born Philip von Hohenheim 11 November 1493 …   Wikipedia

  • Paracelsus — Paracelsian, adj., n. Paracelsianism, n. Paracelsic, Paracelsistic, adj. Paracelsist, n. /par euh sel seuhs/, n. 1. Philippus Aureolus /fi lip euhs aw ree oh leuhs/, (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), 1493? 1541, Swiss physician and… …   Universalium


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.