- Campanella, Tommaso
- (1568-1639)Italian philosopher, poet, and utopian political theorist. He entered the Dominican order in 1582. He was a brilliant student but soon turned against the dominant position of Aristotle in philosophy. His discovery of the anti-Aristotelian "nature-philosophy" of Bernardino Telesio led him to write several works defending Telesio from his critics. This got him in trouble not only with his order but also with the Inquisition. In 1594 at Rome, he was compelled to recant his errors. Sent back to his friary in Calabria, Campanella became involved in a popular uprising against Spanish rule and was arrested in 1599 and condemned to death on charges of both heresy and treason. Since the church's law forbade execution of mentally ill people, he successfully pretended to be insane, but he was held in jail for nearly 30 years. During this period he wrote most of his important books and poems. In 1626, having attracted the sympathy of Pope Urban VIII, Campanella was freed and permitted to go to Rome. In 1634, fearing that the pope had turned against him, he fled to France. He was cordially received by Cardinal Richelieu, the king's chief minister, and given a small pension. He lived in Paris for the remaining years of his life.The philosophical principles expressed in works like Philosophia sensibus demonstrata /Philosophy Proved from the Senses (1591) derived in part from Telesio's efforts to found a new philosophy based on sensory knowledge rather than abstract reason. But Campanella's philosophical system was complex. It attempted to construct a picture of the real world that corresponded with the trinitarian nature of God. Ultimate reunion of the soul with God was the supreme goal of life. Some aspects of his thought suggest animism, the belief that all things in the universe have souls; at other times, he seems inclined to pantheism, the belief that all things are part of the divine essence. An affirmation of occult forces (magical and astrological) is implicit in his view of reality.Yet none of the theoretical parts of his philosophy was so radical as his social and political philosophy, expressed in his most famous book, La Città del sole / The City of the Sun (written in 1602, published in 1623). Even though the Catholic church and the Spanish monarchy were responsible for persecuting him, Campanella's ideal human society was an absolute and autocratic world-monarchy ruled by a just and philosophical pope. This ruler would rigidly discipline every aspect of life, imposing communism of property, obligation to labor, and strict regulation of sexual practices. His ideal society would be based solely on merit. Even women would be eligible for every office not requiring physical strength beyond their ability. The stability and prosperity of this society would be based on education, natural science, and technology. Campanella also wrote many poems, and a number of these were published.
Historical Dictionary of Renaissance. Charles G. Nauert. 2004.
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Campanella, Tommaso — ▪ Italian philosopher and poet original name Giovanni Domenico Campanella born Sept. 5, 1568, Stilo, Kingdom of Naples [Italy] died May 21, 1639, Paris, France Italian philosopher and writer who sought to reconcile Renaissance humanism… … Universalium
Campanella, Tommaso — ► (1568 1639) Filósofo italiano, dominico. Estuvo encarcelado por herejía y conspiración. Preconizó el método experimental. De su obra destaca Filosofía demostrada con los sentidos (1591) … Enciclopedia Universal
CAMPANELLA, TOMMASO — an Italian philosopher of the transition period, originally a Dominican monk, born in Calabria; contemporary of Bacon; aimed, like him, at the reform of philosophy; opposed scholasticism, fell back upon the ancient systems, and devoted himself … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Campanella — Campanella, Tommaso … Enciclopedia Universal
Tommaso Campanella — (* 5. September 1568 in Stilo (Kalabrien); † 21. Mai 1639 in Paris; eigentlich Giovanni Domenico) war ein italienischer Philosoph, Dominikaner, Dichter und Politiker. Campanella entwarf 1602 in La … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tommaso Campanella — (September 5, 1568 ndash; May 21, 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was an Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.BiographyBorn in Stignano (in the county of Stilo) in the province of Reggio di Calabria in southern… … Wikipedia
Tommaso Campanella — Tommaso Campanella † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Tommaso Campanella (Baptized GIOVANNI DOMENICO) Dominican philosopher and writer, b. 5 Sept. 1568 at Stilo in the province of Calabria, Italy; d. at Paris, 21 May, 1659. He was a facile … Catholic encyclopedia
Campanella — (Tommaso) (1568 1639) philosophe italien. Dominicain suspecté d hérésie, puis accusé d avoir pris la tête d une révolte paysanne en Calabre, il passa vingt sept ans en prison. Sa Cité du Soleil (v. 1602) décrit une cité théocratique idéale,… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Tommaso Campanella — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Campanella. Tommaso Campanella Philosophe italien Renaissance … Wikipédia en Français