Wyclif, John
(ca. 1330-1384)
   English theologian, professor of theology at Oxford. His teachings were condemned as heretical, but Wyclif himself had such powerful support from the royal family that he could not be punished, though he was forced to retire from Ox-ford. Wyclif himself, his political role in representing the English monarchy in a conflict with the papacy, and the doctrines regarding ecclesiastical authority and the sacraments for which the archbishop of Canterbury declared him heretical in 1382 are very much a part of medieval rather than Renaissance history, but his followers, the Lollards, were numerous until driven underground by royal persecu-tion in the early 15th century. The movement survived as an under-ground heresy of simple laymen into the early years of the English Reformation, though the degree to which it influenced the course of the Reformation in England is debatable. Wyclif's theology also had some influence on the Czech theologian John Huss and the Hussite religious movement that became the majority religion of the kingdom of Bohemia during the 15th century. Since Wyclif's Lollard follow-ers stubbornly clung to his teaching that all Christians should have free access to the Bible in their own language, one effect of his career is that in pre-Reformation England, unlike most continental coun-tries, possession of the Scriptures in English translation was regarded as prima facie evidence of heretical belief. Thus the opinion of Erasmus and other Christian humanists of the early 16th century that the Bible ought to be accessible to the people seemed far more dangerous in England than in many continental countries, where ver-nacular copies of parts of the Bible were relatively common and were eagerly sought by simple folk.

Historical Dictionary of Renaissance. . 2004.

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  • Wyclif, John — • Lengthy biographical article. Includes bibliography Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Wyclif, John     John Wyclif …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Wyclif, John — (c. 1320–1384) Scholastic philosopher and reformer. Wyclif s major work was the Summa de Ente, a collection of two books with six treatises in each. His central preoccupation was the problem of universals . Wyclif accepts an out and out realism,… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Wyclif, John —    See Wiclif, John …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • Wyclif, John — See Late medieval philosophy, 1350–1500 …   History of philosophy

  • Wiclif, or Wyclif, John — (1320? 1384)    Theologian and translator of the Bible, b. near Richmond, Yorkshire, studied at Balliol Coll., Oxf., of which he became in 1361 master, and taking orders, became Vicar of Fillingham, Lincolnshire, when he resigned his mastership,… …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • John Wyclif — [ˈwɪklɪf], auch Wicliffe, Wiclef, Wycliff, Wycliffe, genannt Doctor evangelicus (* spätestens 1330 in Spreswell in Yorkshire; † 31. Dezember 1384), war ein englischer Philosoph, Theologe und Kirchenreforme …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Wyclif — John Wyclif John Wyclif [ˈwɪklɪf], auch Wicliffe, Wiclef, Wycliff, Wycliffe, genannt Doctor evangelicus (* spätestens 1330 in Spreswell in Yorkshire; † 31. Dezember 1384), war ein englischer Philosoph, Theologe und Kirchenreformer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Wycliff — John Wyclif John Wyclif [ˈwɪklɪf], auch Wicliffe, Wiclef, Wycliff, Wycliffe, genannt Doctor evangelicus (* spätestens 1330 in Spreswell in Yorkshire; † 31. Dezember 1384), war ein englischer Philosoph, Theologe und Kirchenreformer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Wyclif —     John Wyclif     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► John Wyclif     (WYCLIFFE, or WICLIF, etc.).     Writer and reformer , b. probably at Hipswell near Richmond, in Yorkshire, 1324; d. at Lutterworth, Leicestershire, 31 Dec., 1384. His family is said… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • John Wycliffe — John Wickliffe redirects here. For the ship, see John Wickliffe (ship). John Wycliffe Full name John Wycliffe Born c. 1328 Ipreswell, England Died 31 December 1384 …   Wikipedia

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